Lipshitz, S.P., R.A. Wannamaker and J. Vanderkooy, "A Theoretical Survey of
Quantization and Dither," J. Audio Eng. Soc., vol. 40, 1992 May, pp.
A theoretical survey of multi-bit quantization is presented,
beginning with the classical model of undithered quantization and
proceeding to modern
statistical models of undithered, subtractively dithered, and
non-subtractively dithered quantizing systems. Properties of the
error and output signals for each type of system are examined in
relation to the input, using both first and second order statistical
approaches. The virtues of various dither signals are assessed for
use in practical applications. It is hoped that this survey can help
to clarify the differences between different types of dithered
quantization schemes and to correct some of the common
misunderstandings regarding the effects of dithered quantization.